Basic Operations

COO objects can have a number of operators applied to them. They support operations with scalars, scipy.sparse.spmatrix objects, and other COO objects. For example, to get the sum of two COO objects, you would do the following:

z = x + y

Note that in-place operators are currently not supported. For example,

x += y

will not work.


Operations that would result in dense matrices, such as binary operations with numpy.ndarray objects or certain operations with scalars are not allowed and will raise a ValueError. For example, all of the following will raise a ValueError. Here, x and y are COO objects.

x == y
x + 5
x == 0
x != 5
x / y

However, all of the following are valid operations.

x + 0
x != y
x + y
x == 5
5 * x
x / 7.3
x != 0

If densification is needed, it must be explicit. In other words, you must call COO.todense on the COO object. If both operands are COO, both must be densified.


All binary operators support broadcasting. This means that (under certain conditions) you can perform binary operations on arrays with unequal shape. Namely, when the shape is missing a dimension, or when a dimension is 1. For example, performing a binary operation on two COO arrays with shapes (4,) and (5, 1) yields an object of shape (5, 4). The same happens with arrays of shape (1, 4) and (5, 1). However, (4, 1) and (5, 1) will raise a ValueError.

Full List of Operators

Here, x and y can be COO arrays, scipy.sparse.spmatrix objects or scalars, keeping in mind auto densification rules. The following operators are supported: